build.gradle... in fact, every framework has this package management system and you can easily use this to keep your dependencies up to date.
In my role, every time I add a new feature or fix a bug, I update those dependencies to keep the system alive. This pattern originates from my belief that part of being a good programmer means following the boy scout rule.
I was recently asked if I believe that these dependency upgrades are risky and should we rather batch them up and do them later since it will make code reviews smaller and our code won't break from a dependency change.
I disagreed but saying "the boy scout rule" is not enough of reason to disagree... that is a way of working, the reasons I disagreed are...
Versions & Volume
All dependency version upgrades have the chance to fail. By fail I mean they break our code in unexpected ways.
There is a standard that minor version changes should be safe to upgrade, which is why I often will do them all at once with minimal checks while major version changes I approach with more care and understanding. Major changes normally happen by themselves. This is because the major version change is the way the dependency developer tell me and you there are things to be aware of.
Major vs. minor will never be rules to rely on perfectly, rather they are guidance of how to approach the situation. Much like when you drive a car, a change in speed of the road is a sign that you need more or less caution in the next area.
As an example that the type version changes and also the volume of changes are not factors let me tell you about last week. Last week I did two minor version updates on a backend system as part of normal feature addition. It broke the testing tools because one of the dependencies had a breaking change. A minor version, with a breaking change.
It was human error on the part of the developer of the dependency to do a minor and not a major change; which impacted how I approached updating, and that will always increase the chance of issues.
Software is built by humans. Humans, not versions will always be the cause of errors.
Risk & Reward
I do like the word “risk” when discussing should you update, because risk never lives alone; it lives with reward.
How often have you heard people saying updating is too risky, focusing on the chance of something breaking... but not mentioning the reward if they did update?
Stability is not a reward; Stability is what customers expect as the minimum
When we do update we gain code that performs better, is cheaper and easier to maintain and is more secure. The discussion is not what will it break, it is why do we not want faster & safer code for cheaper?
I have an inherited piece of code from a team that did not update the versions, it has a lot of out of date dependencies. It is a high chance of breaking when we start to upgrade those dependencies because it was left uncared for.
However, if I look at the projects my team has built where we all update versions every time we do a change, we only ever going to be doing one or two small updates each time. It is easy to see when issues appear which makes fixing the issues easy too.
Death, taxes and having to update your code.
As a developer there is only one way of escaping updating your code: You will hand the code to someone else to deal with and changes teams, or eventually, you will need to upgrade - doing it often and in small batches is cheaper and easier for you.
Using the backend system example again from above. I only had two small changes to dependencies, so my issue was one of them. I could quickly check both of them and I ended up in the release notes for one of them within 15min where the docs clearly showed the change of logic. That let me fix the code to work with it and thus we could stay on the new version. If I had 100 changes... I would've rolled it all back and gone to lunch and future me would hate past me for that.
Architects & Gardeners
Lastly, our job is not to build some stable monument and leave it to stand the test of time. I deeply believe in DevOps and thus believe the truth that software is evolutionary in nature and needs to be cared for.
We are gardeners of living software, not architects of software towers.
In our world, when things stop… they are dead. Maintenance and fixing things that break is core to our belief that it is the best way to deliver value to customers with living software.